ABO Exam Preparation

Opticians want to know what the best way is to prepare for the ABO exam. They want to know which books they need and what subjects they should study. The exam preparation home study course was created to answer just these questions. It has everything you need to prepare for the test contained in six workbooks and six audio CDs. It includes tables, practice exercises, clearly written explanations, and over 150 practice test questions. It is the industry standard for ABO exam preparation.

This course assumes minimal optical background. It starts from the beginning and follows through to clearly and methodically cover everything you need to know to succeed on the exam.

When preparing for an exam it is easy to be overwhelmed by the sheer amount of material that's available on any given subject, and it is often not clear how much of that material needs to be studied. That's where this course comes in. It extracts the information you need to know to pass the exam and presents it in a clear, logical and methodical manner. The subjects covered in the course go into just enough depth to give you the information you need to know in order to succeed on the exam. For example, you need to know some math. But don't be concerned if math isn't your favorite subject. If you can add, subtract, multiply and divide you'll do fine in that section. Another example might be the subject of Anatomy & Physiology. As you might imagine there are many excellent books on this subject. But the dilemma is: which one and how much of it do you have to study? Dilemma solved!

Course Contents

Part I: Anatomy Physiology

This section surveys the major anatomical features of the human eye along with their physiological function. It includes a discussion of the cornea, iris, pupil, crystalline lens, suspensory ligaments, aqueous and vitreous humor, retina, rods and cones, choroid, optic nerve, macula, sclera, and ciliary body. Certain pathologies such as glaucoma, cataract, and scotoma are described. The various ametropias which are usually correctable with spectacle lenses are surveyed. Phorias and tropias will be presented and discussed. A glossary of important covered will conclude this session.

Part 2: Basic Optical Principles

Here we Begin with a discussion of the metric system of measurement followed by a review of basic mathematical principles. The electromagnetic spectrum, the nature and propagation of visible light, and index of refraction is presented. This section concludes with a discussion of prism, prism diopter, the perception of lenses as prism, and Prentice's Rule.

Part 3: Lens Form Analysis

Covers the actual shape and deign of modern prescription ophthalmic lenses. It will include a discussion of spheres and radius of curvature. Corrected curve lenses, the rationale for the use of commonly recommended base curves, and the importance of the routine use of the "lens clock" will be presented. Cylindrical shapes and their use in prescription ophthalmic lenses for the correction of astigmatism are discussed. The power cross will be covered to aid in determining the power of compound lenses in the various meridians and to better understand lens transposition. Finally, vertex distance compensation for higher powered lenses will be covered.

Part 4: Lens Materials Coatings

Surveys the common materials from which ophthalmic lenses are made along with a description of their general characteristics and potential uses. The relative merits of three spectacle lens materials are compared-- these include crown class, CR-39 plastic, and polycarbonate. Tints and coatings will be discussed as they are used for absorptive, protective, and cosmetic purposes with glass and plastic lens materials.

Part 5: Multifocal Designs

Surveys various styles of multifocal lenses currently available to include flat top, executive, ultex, blended, progressive—the relative merits and uses of each will be outlined. The concept of the reading addition and "image jump" along with a rationale for the development of improved multifocal lens designs will be discussed along with a comparison of fused and one piece lenses. Bicentric grinding or "Slab-off" is included in this session along with a discussion of spectacle lenses which are used for the correction of aphakia.

Part 6: Ophthalmic Frames

The basic parts of the ophthalmic frame are discussed the various measurement criteria are summarized. Horizontal and vertical lens decentration is explained and the theoretical as well as practical minimum lens blank sizes are calculated based on frame dimensions, pupillary distance, and other practical considerations. Common frame materials will be surveyed with a brief discussion of the general characteristics of each. An outline of the various frame styles and bridge designs will emphasize the importance of proper bridge selection and temple length. Frame adjustment includes a discussion of the fitting triangle as well as the various frame tilts and face forms. A summary of fitting problems will be presented along with possible solutions.

Part 7: Instrumentation

Begins with a study of the lensometer to include a survey of its principal parts as will as a summary of the measurements it is capable of reading. Includes a step by step procedure for verifying a lens from a known prescription as well known as neutralizing a lens from an unknown prescription. The methods of interpreting prism power as well as the direction of its base are followed by a description of when and how to "split" vertical prism for improved cosmetics and patient comfort. A survey and brief description of some basic tools used in the optical dispensary concludes this section.

Part 8: Regulations & Standards

The governmental and non-governmental regulatory agencies are surveyed to include ANSI, OSHA, FDA, and ASTM. An abbreviated table of ANSI Standards is included to list the most commonly referenced tolerances for prescription ophthalmic lenses along with a table of other ANSI publications of interest to the optical dispenser. Professional liability for the products, services, and information dispensed to the public is addressed. Emphasis is placed on maintaining adequate, up-to-date product knowledge and of demonstrating genuine concern for the needs and well-being of the patient.